Personal Training Special – Save 10%!

Take your training to the next level! From October 1 – 31, any new client can save 10% on the purchase a package of 12  1-hour personal training sessions with a certified personal trainer.

If you are a current personal training client and refer a friend who purchases 12 or more new sessions in October, you receive a complimentary training session.

Contact Lisa Humbert, general manager, at 312.444.6060 or lhumbert@ffc.com for more information or to schedule your complimentary consultation.

Sign Up For Strength Training Equipment 101

Avoid injury and get results! Become better acquainted and learn proper technique on our strength training equipment in a class led by certified personal trainer Shante Glenn.

  • Thursday, October 13 – 11:45 AM – 12:45 PM
  • Tuesday, October 25 – 11:45 AM – 12:45 PM

Attend one or both – find the time that best fits your schedule! Register by calling 312.444.6060 or email general manager, Lisa Humbert, at lhumbert@ffc.com. Walk-ins are welcome!

Columbus Day Hours

Columbus Day is Monday, October 10 – 190 Athletic Club will be operating on a revised holiday schedule: 5:30 AM – 2:00 PM.

Have a happy and healthy holiday!

Congratulations to Michael Evans, 190 Athletic Club’s August Member of the Month!

We’d like to extend a HUGE congratulations to the 190 Athletic Club’s August Member of the Month, Michael Evans, who has recently transformed himself physically and mentally! Michael’s starting weight in January 2016 was over 200 pounds. At the end of July, he had lost a total of 25 pounds and reduced total body fat to 11.1%!

ME190AthleticClub

We sat down with Michael and asked him to share the high points and challenges he experienced along the way to his success; here’s what he had to say.

Why did you begin working out at 190 Athletic Club?

My daughter, Ainsley, has Angelman Syndrome (AS). AS is a severe, neurological disorder. Ainsley cannot speak, has seizures that are difficult to control, and has challenges with motor coordination and balance. You can learn more about AS by visiting www.CureAngelman.org.

Ainsley needs assistance to perform everyday tasks and I was having a very difficult time giving her the support she deserved. I felt weak, tired and concerned about how long I would be around for her. I felt I needed to join a gym to focus on cardio and strength so that I can provide the appropriate care for my daughter.

How has your workout experiences changed since you began?

I joined the gym to focus on cardio and strength initially, but as I started to see muscle gain and weight loss, my goals changed. I started because of my daughter and she is my inspiration every day, but going daily is easier when you see good progress.

What does your nutrition consist of?

  • High protein, some fat (good fat) and low carbohydrate diet
  • Protein with every meal, including protein shakes between meals
  • 2 tablespoons of a good fat (coconut oil and almond butter) daily
  • I keep the carbohydrates low, choose good carbohydrates and only eat them early in the day
  • I completely cut out soda, sugar and caffeine

What were some of the deficiencies you noticed with regard to your health and overall fitness?

Working out alone and keeping the exercise challenging and interesting is difficult. I also found it hard to work areas like core and legs. I started with a trainer to focus more on cardio and core. As I saw the benefits, better balance, stronger abs, less pain in hips, I added legs. I then felt I wasn’t getting the muscle gain I expected for working out 5 days a week, so I worked with the trainer to change up my daily weight routine. The routine is now much more intense and interesting.

When you inquired about personal training, what were your expectations from 190 Athletic Club and with your trainer, Shante?

When I decided to use a trainer, I assumed it would improve my workout experience. Having someone to talk to while working out. Having someone to help work difficult areas. I never thought it would completely change how I work out and achieve amazing goals that I never thought were possible.

Shante helped me go well beyond my expectations. I am not winded doing everyday tasks, I do not get tired in the afternoon, I have less pain in my legs and hips since they are now stronger. I lost 25 pounds. I reduced my body fat by 15%. I can now easily assist my daughter and I now feel healthy, so I will be around as long as she needs me.

What do you enjoy most about your workout experience to this day?

I actually enjoy the workout. Seeing gains definitely motivates you to go daily, but having a routine that changes and stays interesting makes you look forward to your daily workout.

What has been the most difficult part of your experience? The most rewarding?

  • The most difficult part is working out areas that are very weak.
  • It is very easy to give up and move on, or completely skip, but having a trainer helps you push through it. Seeing gains in these areas is then very rewarding.
  • The most rewarding is being able to assist my daughter without pain. Being able to support her walking or being able to carry her up stairs if she is tired. The feeling that I am healthy enough to be there for her for a very long time.

What lessons did you learn that you can share with others? What tips/advice would you have for the average gym goer?

  • To stay with a workout program and a diet, it needs to become a natural part of your day.
  • Work out at the same time every day so it becomes part of your standard routine.
  • Diet by eating smart.
  • Eating foods you do not like or starving yourself can’t be maintained. Find proteins, good fats and good carbohydrates you like.
  • Work out with a trainer at least one a week. It will keep you motivated to go daily, keep things interesting since the workout will continue to change and will help you achieve your goals.
  • Once you see you are reaching your goals, you will set even more difficult goals and be even more motivated and might even get to a point where you enjoy going to the gym daily.

Sign Up Now: The 190 Summer Stride Challenge! Aug 1 – 31

Let’s get active – the Summer Stride Challenge is open for ALL 190 S. LaSalle building tenants! Let’s work together to take strides towards a healthier more active life.

Connect with any leading Fitness Tracker or use your Smart Phone to track your steps and see how you stack up against the rest of 190 S. LaSalle Building Tenants.

Challenge Name: 190 Summer Stride Challenge
Start Date: August 1
End Date: August 31
Goal: 7,000 steps/day
Price: Ask at the Fitness Desk for more info, or visit the site listed below!

To Join The Challenge

For Android devices/Laptop/PC/iPad: search web: https://190.stridekick.com then go to “join challenge”.


For iPhone users, go to your app store and download the “Stridekick” app – once you log in, you will go to “find challenge” – then choose “190”.

Register with the 190 Athletic Club prior to August 1 or as soon as you sign up. Registration is recommended but not required to join challenge.

All registrants will receive 5 complimentary guest passes to use towards the 190 Athletic Club. Guest must be a 190 building tenant!

For more information, please contact the 190 Athletic Club at 312.444.6060 or email Lisa Humbert, General Manager at lhumbert@ffc.com!

Memorial Day Hours

In observance of the Memorial Day holiday, the 190 Athletic Club will be operating on a revised schedule:

Friday, May 27 – 5:30 AM – 2:00 PM

Monday, May 30 – closed

Enjoy the extended weekend! For more information, please contact Lisa Humbert, General Manager, at lhumbert@ffc.com.

ZERO Enrollment For New Members, Free Laundry Service & Personal Training for YOU

Commit to Get Fit by referring two or more friends to the 190 Athletic Club this May!

Do you have friends and co-workers in the building discussing their goal of getting back into fitness? Refer them to the 190 Athletic Club! If two or more of your referrals join:

You’ll achieve better results – studies show working out with a friend increases success rates
You’ll receive two months of FREE laundry service PLUS a complimentary one-hour personal training session
Your friend will enjoy a complimentary workout before joining
Your friend can join with a $0 enrollment fee through May, 31, 2016

Contact Lisa Humbert, General Manager, at 312.444.6060 or lhumbert@ffc.com.


* Note:Complimentary workouts are for new guests of the 190 Athletic Club. New members must be current 190 building tenants. New members must provide the name of referring member upon enrollment to receive complimentary laundry service and personal training session. Restrictions apply.

Personal Training Special for May

Now through May 31, new clients can purchase a package of twelve (12) 60-minute personal training sessions with a certified personal trainer and receive two sessions FREE!  

Contact Lisa Humbert, General Manager at 312.444.6060 or lhumbert@ffc.com for more information or to schedule your complimentary consultation.  

190 Athletic Club Member Profile: “Champion of Health”

Julian Shin, a 190 Athletic Club Member, has recently transformed himself physically and mentally.  Julian’s starting weight in January was 188 pounds. At the end of June, he had lost a total of 25 pounds and 8.5% body fat.

We sat down with Julian and asked him to share the high points and challenges he experienced along the way to his success.

What health or fitness goals did you achieve lately? When did these occur?

  • Won the “Burn to Earn” 190 Athletic Club/FFC contest.
  • Won the “attendance contest” 190 Athletic Club for the month of May.
  • Dropped from 188 lbs to 163 lbs with a planned bulk/cut starting in June 2014 (7 month bulk & 5 month cut).

What was a recent motivator that made you decide to pursue the goal?

I was tired of failing on weight-loss programs; I could do strength programs well but couldn’t muster the discipline to maintain the cut.

What was the most difficult part of the experience?

Not eating the foods I wanted to eat, especially late at night.

What kept you motivated?

Taking month-to-month photos to help document the change helped keep me motivated. Also, seeing my abs slowly appear for the first time in my life helped a lot!

How has your life changed?

Women run up to me asking for my number. No – in all seriousness, my discipline with my workout and cutting routine has really helped improve all other facets of my life! I feel much more organized and calm. The drive to succeed has given me more self-confidence as well.

What lessons did you learn along the way you would share with others?

Diet is much more important than lifting or running. Want to get strong? Lift and eat whatever. Want to get thin? Eat at a caloric deficit. Want to get strong AND look ripped? Lift heavy and eat smart!

What tips would you give others trying to achieve the same goal?

  • Start small and build up.
  • Develop a start date and end date.
  • Incorporate your work routine with your fitness plans. When you go work out, make a calendar reminder on your Outlook to help remind you when to drink your protein shake beforehand.
  • Use your smart phone. IT’S ESSENTIAL. Take before/after photos, track your weight.
  • Listening to the right music really helped me get “into the mood” and I rarely took it off during my workouts until I hopped in the shower. You aren’t at the gym to make friends. Get in and get out. The music will help with this.
  • When you get back on the wagon, GET back on the wagon. No excuses. Even if it’s been one day, one week or one month, climb back on!
  • If you aren’t losing weight and you end up telling yourself that your “metabolism is too slow” or “you don’t have time to do cardio” – those are excuses. Just eat less. It’s as simple as that. You don’t even need to run or lift. Just reduce your caloric intake.
  • Make friends with the 190 Athletic Club’s front desk staff. They will help you out and are super nice.

What was your life like before (diet/exercise)?

A blur of Panda Express, lots of pork tacos and tortilla chips, and a ton of chocolate-heavy sweets. I would work out sporadically but never regularly or with a plan.

What is your life like now (diet/exercise). Please be specific about your exercise and nutrition routines and tricks.

  • Eat 1 gram of protein per pound of body weight per day. I started eating 188 grams/day when I first began lifting.
  • Eat a moderate amount of carbs 3 days a week and low carbs 4 days a week. Cycle carbs.
  • Eat minimal fats.
  • Go hard Monday through Friday and rest Saturday/Sunday.
  • Do cardio 3 times a week at lunch and lift weights after work on those days. Non-cardio lifting sessions are for the other workdays. So total workout number is around 5-8 workouts a week!
  • Eat 3 lbs of plain Greek yogurt a day (half a Costco tub in the morning and the rest in the afternoon). After your lunch workout, have 4 oz of raw salmon and 2-8 oz of white rice depending on your carb cycle day.
  • Eat small dinner when you get home – heavy protein and veggies if possible.
  • Weekends: all rest, no lifting. Eat what I want including cheat meals but in half or quarter portions.

Lastly, keep reading and learning about fitness. The more you read about it, the more motivated you are to try out the new things you read about!

julianshinhealthsuccess

Happy Anniversary

The 190 Athletic Club is celebrating 9 years this January! Join us for a week of festivities, food and fun Jan. 19 – 23! A list of all of our events can be picked up at the club, or call 312.444.6060 for more information.

Initiation Fee Special

$9 initiation fee all month in January! Refer a co-worker and you receive a complimentary personal training session!

10% Off Personal Training

Get a jump start on the new year, and a new you, by saving 10% on all personal training packages (6-pack or more) Jan. 2-30, 2015!
For more information on our packages, or to schedule a complimentary 15-minute consultation, please contact General Manager Lisa Humbert at lhumbert@ffc.com.

Rise and Shine Boot Camp

Get motivated and start your day off on the right foot with our early bird boot camp led by Certified Personal Trainer Jason Duley!

  • 4 Sessions: $75 for club members, $95 for building tenant non-members
  • Mondays and Wednesdays: 6:30-7:30 am
  • Begins Wednesday, Jan. 7. Register by Tuesday, Jan. 6
  • Minimum of 4 participants required to run program
    Contact Lisa Humbert, General Manager, at lhumbert@ffc.com for more information. Call 312.444.6060 to register.

  • Burn to Earn

    Burn body fat to win cash and a complimentary membership!

  • Jan. 19 – March 27: sign up! Get tested between Jan. 19 & 23
  • Free for club members*, $150 for building tenant non-members (includes use of health club and amenities for duration of competition)
    *Pay nothing OR $20 cash – Winner gets all!! (must be a paid contributor)

  • Grand prize: 6-month complimentary membership PLUS complimentary laundry service
  • 2nd place: 3-month complimentary membership PLUS complimentary laundry service
  • 3rd place: 1-month complimentary membership PLUS complimentary laundry service.
  • Winter Holiday Hours of Operation

    Wednesday, Dec. 24: 5:30am-2pm
    Thursday, Dec. 25: Closed
    Friday, Dec.26: Closed
    Wednesday, Dec. 31: 5:30am-2pm
    Thursday, Jan.1: Closed
    Friday, Jan. 2: 6:00am-7:00pm

    Rise and Shine Boot Camp

    Beat holiday weight gain with a four-session boot camp to keep your body moving!

    • Mondays and Wednesdays, Dec. 3, 8, 10, 15
    • 6:30-7:30 am.
    • $75 for members, $95 for building tenant non-members*

    *Minimum of four participants required to run the program

    Register by Monday, Dec. 1 by calling 312-444-6060. Contact Lisa, General Manager, at lhumbert@ffc.com for more information.

    14 Days of Fitness

    Work out for 14 consecutive days, starting any time between Monday, Dec. 1 and Monday, Dec. 22, you choose your start date. We will provide the workouts, giving you the tools to drop up to 10 pounds in just two weeks*! Contact Lisa, General Manager, at lhumbert@ffc.com for more information.

    *Results may vary. Consult a physician before starting any workout program. Winner(s) receive bragging rights.

    Refer a Friend

    ZERO enrollment for your friend. Complimentary personal training session for you!
    Tell your 190 S. LaSalle St. friends and co-workers to fall into fitness! Now is the time for them to join the 190 Athletic Club. Why? Because, we’re offering ZERO enrollment fee for all new members through October 31! Best yet, current members (that means YOU!) who refer one new member will receive a complimentary personal training session. For new guests only, we will offer a complimentary week trial membership before they make a decision! Have them call us at 312-444-6060 to schedule an appointment today. For more information, please contact Lisa Humbert, General Manager, at lhumbert@ffc.com.

    Breast Cancer Awareness Month

    This October, we are recognizing Breast Cancer Awareness Month by partnering with Bright Pink, the only national non-profit organization focusing on the prevention and early detection of breast and ovarian cancer in young women, while providing support for high-risk individuals. When you make a donation to the Bright Pink Foundation website at www.brightpink.org and bring in a copy of the receipt, we will recognize your donation at the 190 Athletic Club.

    For those who donate, please feel free to join us for a special Donation Master Yoga Class* held in the 190 Library on Friday, October 24 from 12:30-1:30 pm. This Class is open to ALL 190 building Tenants, including members and non-members of the 190 Athletic Club.

    *Please present a copy of your donation receipt prior to joining the class

    Chiro One Screening

    Stop by the Club on Monday, September 8 from 11:30am-2pm and receive a FREE wellness Screening from Chiro One. Learn how spinal health affects overall wellness. No appointment necessary.

    Celebrate National Yoga Month!

    Be a participant in all of our Yoga Classes and celebrate National Yoga Month. *Non- members pay $5/class (190 building tenants) so bring your co-worker or share with them the great news! Classes are held on Tuesdays and Fridays from 12:30pm-1:30pm and led by Molly Anderson.

    *Pre-registration for your guest is required prior to taking class. Guest check in is required upon each visit. Paid classes will be applied towards new member’s enrollment fee (with receipt of payment) if they join by September 30.

    Fall Group Fitness Schedule

    The season is almost upon us. Leap into a new fitness regime by participating in a variety of group fitness classes. Cardio, strength, mind/body… We’ve added two new classes to the schedule: Tread on Thursdays at 1pm and Spinning Interval on Monday nights at 5:15pm. Our fall schedule begins on Monday, September 8! Check it out at ffc.com/190athleticclub/group-fitness or pick up a schedule at the Club. Call 312.444.6060 for more information or email General Manager, Lisa Humbert at lhumbert@ffc.com.

    Commit to Get Fit!

    Do you have friends and co-workers in the building discussing their goal of getting back into fitness? Refer two or more friends who join the 190 Athletic Club this May.

    When your referrals join:

    • You’ll achieve better results – studies show working out with a friend increases success rates.
    • You’ll receive two months of FREE laundry service PLUS a complimentary one-hour personal training session.
    • They can enjoy a complimentary one-week trial membership before joining.
    • They can join with a $0 enrollment fee through May 31, 2014.

    Contact Lisa Humbert, General Manager, at 312.444.6060 or lhumbert@ffc.com

    * Note: Trial memberships are exclusive to new guests of the 190 Athletic Club. New member must be a current 190 building tenant. New member must provide the name of referring member upon enrollment to receive complimentary laundry service AND personal training session.

    Restrictions apply.

    Vinyasa Yoga

    If you haven’t tried one of Molly’s Vinyasa Yoga Classes at the 190 Athletic Club, now is the time!

    Molly began practicing yoga 15 yrs ago, when she lived in LA. That is where she connected with her teacher and mentor Ana Forrest. It wasn’t until 2003 when she decided to take her first teacher training at Moksha yoga studio. She completed her Advanced teacher training in 2007.

    She has practiced and studied with several Master teachers, such as Rod Stryker, Seane Corn, and Andre Lappa, but always returned to her roots in Forrest yoga. This style works through poses to release any pain or stuck energy by tracking through feeling.

    Molly teaches Vinyasa Yoga on Tuesdays and Fridays from 12:30pm-1:30pm. She is committed to her practice and to her 190 Athletic Club students. Her passion for the practice is evident in her teaching each and every time.

    For more information on Molly’s class or others, please contact the General Manager, Lisa Humbert at lhumbert@ffc.com or 312-444-6060.

    Thai Massage Stretch Therapy

    Save 10% when you book your appointment in May.*

    Tension in our mind and body is the main cause of pain and suffering in the world. Therapeutic touch can help:
    -Relax
    -Reduce stress
    -Improve circulation
    -Increase energy
    -Increase flexibility
    -Improve range of motion.

    Try a Thai Tune-Up for only $45: 30-minute session. 24-hour cancellation policy applies.

    All sessions are serviced at the 190 Athletic Club in the Group Fitness Studio (private setting).

    *Special offer good through May 30, 2014.

    Holiday Hours

    In observance of the holiday, the 190 Athletic Club will be operating on a revised schedule:

    • Friday, May 23 from 5:30am-2pm
    • Monday, May 26 the Club will be CLOSED

    Enjoy the extended weekend and be safe!

    190 Athletic Club Fitness Fair

    The 190 Athletic Club, a Fitness Formula Club, will be hosting a Fitness Fair for all 190 building tenants on Wednesday, January 15 from 11am-2pm in the Library on the 40th Floor.

    This event will feature health-related displays, free health screenings, and the opportunity to participate in interactive presentations and classes. A few of the participating organizations include:

    • FFC Spa Services
    • FFC Endurance Programs
    • One Medical Group
    • Team Bright Pink – Marathon Training Program
    • Healthy Eating Habits from an FFC Registered Dietitian
    • Play 18 Chicago – indoor golfing, simulators, driving bays, lessons

    A complete list of all of our participating organizations and additional details on the Fitness Fair will be shared to all Club members and 190 building tenants prior to the event.

    Huge raffle with prizes from local businesses. Must enter to win. Bring your business card.
    Zero Enrollment Fee for all building tenants who join the 190 Athletic Club any time in January.

    Thai Stretch Massage Therapy Demonstration and Participation.

    We hope to see you there!

    Please contact Lisa Humbert, General Manager at lhumbert@ffc.com or 312.444.6060 for additional information.

    Winter Group Fitness Schedule

    The 190 Athletic Club’s Winter Group Fitness Schedule starts on Monday, January 6.

    Find your Zen. Due to popular demand, we have added an additional Yoga Class on ‘Tuesdays’ at 12:30pm.  Also new on the Wednesday schedule, get fired up and check out Iron Ride at 11:40am. This class combines intervals of Spinning with upper body muscle strength and endurance exercises on and off the bike.

    We have maintained all of our other great classes such as FitSPORT, Zumba, Vinyasa Yoga, Iron Ride, Power Platform and FitCORE.

    Our most current schedule can always be found on here on our website.

    For more information on any of our classes, please contact General Manager Lisa Humbert at lhumbert@ffc.com or 312.444.6060.

    Rise and Shine

    Rise and shine, troops! The 190 Boot Camp is a very good reason to wake up early this October. Join Jason Duley, Certified Personal Trainer, at the 190 Athletic Club for a wake-me-up, pick-me-up boot camp (coffee optional).

    This class is suited for a wide range of participants from beginners to those who have been engaged in a consistent exercise regimen. Our goal is for you to be active from the moment you wake up in the morning. Jason will vary the class with a mix of interior and exterior physical activities, such as running drills, squats, lunges, plyometrics and calisthenics.

    The 190 Athletic Club boot camp will assist our participants with achieving a healthy lifestyle, improving overall physical strength, expanding cardiovascular endurance and increasing their base level of coordination and agility. Our class is structured on an individual basis, with an overall group objective.

    A minimum of five participants is required to proceed in running the program. Classes start October 7 – 6:30am-7:30am.  Payment must be received upon registering (no later than Friday, October 4) and can be made via major credit card or checks payable to 190 Athletic Club.

    Call us at 312.444.6060 or stop by the Club on the 2nd floor. For more information, contact Lisa Humbert, General Manager, at lhumbert@ffc.comffc.com/190athleticclub.

    Members: 8 sessions $130, 4 sessions $75. Non-members (190 building tenants): 8 sessions $150, 4 sessions $95

    Thai Massage Special

    Thai Massage Stretch Therapy – Fall Special

    Tension in our mind and body is the main cause of pain and suffering in the world. Therapeutic touch can help. To learn more about how Thai Massage Stretch Therapy can benefit you, please stop by the Club for additional information or contact General Manager, Lisa Humbert lhumbert@ffc.com.

    Member rate: 60 min/$90 and 90 min/$150. Non member rates also available

    All sessions are serviced at the 190 Athletic Club’s Group Fitness Studio and are by appointment only, weekdays Monday-Friday 1:30pm-4pm.*  Call the 190 Athletic Club at 312.444.6060.

    *10% off on your first session through October 31, 2013.
    24-hr cancellation policy applies.

    Refer a Guest

    ZERO enrollment for your friend. Free laundry service for you.

    Tell your 190 friends and co-workers to fall into fitness! Now is the time for them to join the 190 Athletic Club. Why? Because, we’re offering ZERO enrollment fee for all new members through October 31, 2013.

    Best yet, current members (that means YOU!) who refer at least two new memberships will receive * two free months of laundry service!

    If this is their first time visiting us, they can try out the Club “on us” for one week. We will offer them a *complimentary week trial membership before they make a decision.

    Have them call us at 312.444.6060 to schedule an appointment today!

    For more information, please contact Lisa Humbert, General Manager at lhumbert@ffc.com.

    *Trial memberships exclusive for new guests of 190 Athletic Club and 190 Building Tenants.
    *New member must provide the name of referring member upon enrollment to receive complimentary laundry service.

    Learn to Fly!

    111AcroYogaSaturday, September 28, 9:00am-12:00pm at 111 Fitness Club located at 111 South Wacker Drive. $99/person OR $75/person when you sign up with a friend. Members and Non-members welcome! Join Melissa and friends for an elevated experience in Acrobatic Yoga. Spend three hours blending unique yoga flows, hand balancing, core work and partner acrobatics. You will depart from this experience feeling re-energized and inspired. For more information, contact Club Manager Melissa Bowen at mbowen@ffc.com. You are welcome to attend with a partner, but it’s not a requirement to attend.

    Meet Joe Woulfe

    Jow WoulfeJoe recently joined the 190 Athletic Club Group Fitness team in April. He has been with FFC for two years and has been teaching spinning for over 15 years! Joe’s goal is to bring a high level of energy to the Spin room and to focus on motivating his participants to challenge themselves to get the most out of their workouts. Joe teaches *Spinning at 190 every Wednesday at 11:40am-12:25pm.

    For more information on this class or others, please contact Lisa Humbert, General Manager, at lhumbert@ffc.com. Please refer to our group fitness schedule for a full schedule and “real time” updates.

    *Sign up may be required. Please arrive 15 minutes prior to class start time.